Siberia - BAM - Science (1975)

Documentary №40911, 6 parts, duration: 0:59:55
Production: Sverdlovsk newsreel studio
Director:B. Urickij
Screenwriters:Ibragimova, Pritvitz, Rozin
Camera operators:G. Kulikov


The film covers the development of the Siberia region.

Reel №1

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Educational film about the problems of permafrost, seismic hazard, the development of new areas of Siberia in connection with the construction of the Baikal-Amur Mainline.

Scientists: Kutateladze, AV Nikolaev, A. K. Belyaev, F. A. Reimers, A. Trofimuk, AG Aganbegyan give interviews (synchronously).

Siberian landscapes in different seasons.

Construction of the Baikal-Amur Mainline.

Permafrost Institute in


Meeting of the Academic Council.

Institute employees at work, doing research.

Landscapes of Lake Baikal.

Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Siberian Branch of the USSR Academy of Sciences.

Institute of the Earth's crust in



Movement of boats on the river.

Institute of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Siberian Branch of the USSR Academy of Sciences.

Experimental plots and laboratories of the institute.

Biological Station of the Siberian Institute of Cytology and Genetics.

Employees observe animals.

Institute of Economics and Industrial Engineering of Siberian Branch of the USSR Academy of Sciences.

Key words

River transport.
River transport.


Solonenko Trofimchuk Aganbegyan

Locations: Siberia


BAM. Institute of Permafrost Studies.

Reel №2

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Experiments on the study of heat exchange between soil and atmosphere conducted by scientists at the thermal balance hospital at the Institute of Permafrost in the city of Yakutsk.

The water in the tube on the ground, protected from sunlight by foam plates, froze at a depth of 10 cm.

In the open ground , ice appears at a depth of 1.5 m .

Equipment of the heat balance hospital.

A modern thermometer for scientific research.

At the same time, this device measures humidity, the amount of solar radiation and other parameters by which it is possible to judge how permafrost feels.

A hydrointegrator that allows you to study the dynamics of permafrost changes, create graphs of its life, birth, maturity and death.

Another laboratory of the institute is located underground.

Here, scientists have discovered that permafrost can be used as a refrigerator warehouse, as an unlimited storage capacity for petroleum products.

Laboratory equipment, with the help of which it is established that permafrost is a solid foundation for the foundation of any heaviest structure.

Loose sand bound by permafrost gains the strength of granite.

Scientists have proposed to build houses on stilts with an emphasis on permafrost.

Builders evaporate a well in the frozen ground where the pile is lowered.

After two days, it seizes.

The pile foundation allows drafts to walk quietly underground between the ground and the bottom of the house.

The permafrost is insulated from the heat radiated by the building.

A sample of such construction.

Panorama of houses built using this technology.

The Vilyuisk hydroelectric dam is the only one in the world built by the bulk method.

There is no concrete in the dam, but its strength is great.

The permafrost that lives in the ground under the filling gradually penetrates into the large pores of the embankment and strengthens it.

Workers select the core from the body of the dam, it consists of frozen soil.

The air temperature is plus 40 in the body of the dam minus 17 degrees.

A worker takes a glass of water installed on the dam for 5 minutes. back.

The principle of heat exchange was used when installing cold piles.

Two pipes are installed in the middle of the pile.

The engineer draws a diagram of the operation of such piles.

Pumping cold, the pile freezes the soil around itself.

Such piles are used in areas where the permafrost often changes.

Buildings built on permafrost.

The Institute of Thermophysics has created the simplest refrigerator for permafrost - polymer foam.

Foam samples.

Alternating frames showing difficulties when working with the ground in the North.

If from autumn before frosts the soil is covered with a layer of foam 30-40cm thick, in winter, after removing snow and a layer of foam, you can safely work with a shovel and a bulldozer.

And, conversely, if it is necessary to preserve the permafrost, it is necessary to cover the pad with foam in the spring.

Key words

Heat exchange.

Locations: The Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) [750]


Thermal balance hospital at the Institute of Permafrost Science in the city of Yakutsk. Vilyuyskaya hydroelectric power station. Institute of Thermophysics.

Reel №3

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Scientists are exploring the ice.

Most of the ice disappears in summer.

Seasonal open permafrost is no less tricky than eternal and covered.

Photos of ice that interfere with human life.

Map of BAM with dangerous areas of ice.

The method of dealing with ice is shown on the example of a stream crossing a railway.

A sample of the railway track on the so-called sluggish permafrost.

An experimental embankment on the 170 kilometer of BAM, where they learn to heal permafrost.

A vibration platform where the effect of vibration from the passage of trains is investigated.

Scientists are investigating what caused the temperature to rise in the permafrost, lethargy and degradation.

The scientist draws a scheme for restoring the embankment during subsidence from permafrost deformation.

The teletype is working.

Alternating photos from the construction of BAM.

A newspaper is being printed.

A newspaper report about an earthquake in Eastern Siberia.

Photos of the destruction during the earthquake.

Panorama of Lake Baikal and its shores.

At this place there is a rift zone, the only one on the territory of the USSR.

Scientists are floating on the lake.

A detachment of geophysicists, abandoned by helicopter in the taiga.

Scientists install devices of the hardware complex link, which is controlled by radio from a long distance.

Seismic recorder.

This device is connected to six seismic receivers.

Installation of such a receiver.

Connecting the power supply.

The antenna is installed.

Geophysicists are transported to other sites where the same equipment is installed.

According to the method of deep seismic sounding, an explosion is produced.

The explosion is made in a small lake.

Scientists from the Siberian branch of the USSR Academy of Sciences Institute of Geology and Geophysics study the records made by the seismic recorder during the explosion.

Seismic recorders recorded the reflection of the blast wave from the layers lying at a depth of up to 50 km.

Programs for computers are compiled based on such seismograms.

The operator loads punched cards into the computer.

Printout of the results.

The media on magnetic tapes are installed.

The graph builder is working.

Printouts of deep reliefs of the sounding site.

Key words

Rift zone.
Seismic sounding.

Locations: Eastern Siberia. Baikal [922]


BAM. Siberian Branch of the USSR Academy of Sciences Institute of Geology and Geophysics.

Reel №4

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Scientists of the Siberian Branch of the USSR Academy of Sciences Institute of the Earth's Crust under the leadership of corresponding member of the USSR Academy of Sciences V.P. Solonenko have developed a methodology for seismic zoning.

The scientist examines photographs with faults of the earth's crust formed during past earthquakes.

Scientists determine their strength, repeatability and epicenters.

Even those seismic phenomena that happened several millennia ago are being analyzed.

The research methodology is shown.

This technique allows you to shorten the research period by 10-12 years.

A map of the BAMA line indicating the strength of earthquakes on the territory of the railway in points.

The map shows the locations of earthquake-prone areas and earthquake epicenters.

According to the observations of employees of the seismological station, the earth in the BAM zone shakes approximately every 3 hours.

Seismologists call these swarms of earthquakes.

The recorders show another earthquake.

The architect creates a layout of the next city.

Scientific thought finds different methods of seismic protection.

We are considering a drawing of a seismic protection device.

In the basement of the building there is an additional stand with a deliberately weakened connection.

With a seismic shock, the entire structure begins to oscillate, the weakened connection breaks, but the structure itself will survive.

The technique is based on the resonance effect.

The destruction of the structure is the result of the coincidence of the frequency of its own vibrations with the frequency of the shock wave.

The breaking of the weakened connection takes the building out of resonance.

A drawing of a device that uses a different method of seismic protection, the use of an intermediate column.

When the foundation is displaced by a shock wave, it will still remain a support by means of a column.

Voids are left in the foundation, which extinguish the shock wave.

Architectural bureau.

A pile foundation is being installed on permafrost, and tape foundations will have to be left in earthquake-prone areas.

Sketches of buildings for such sites.

Cold piles can be used.

Repeat the sketch of similar piles.

To prevent a house standing on permafrost from melting it, a layer of polymer foam is installed in the basement, and cold piles are installed around the perimeter of the building, strengthening the permafrost.

Projects of high-rise buildings on problem areas of BAM.

Architects are discussing new neighborhoods.

Academician A.A. Trofimuk, Director of the Institute of Geology and Geophysics of the SB Academy of Sciences of the USSR, talks about mineral deposits along the BAMA highway.

A sample of coking coal.

Chuymanovskoye coking coal deposit is located next to BAM, next to the iron ore deposit.

Almost on the highway itself is the largest Udokan copper deposit.

A sample of copper ore.

Tin and long-fiber asbestos were found in the BAM region.

Samples of materials are shown.

Bauxite, valuable ores of rare earth elements, manganese and molybdenum ores, mica and gold, and much more have been discovered.

Samples of these materials are shown.

Continuation of the interview with A.A. Trofimuk.

Teletype tape.

Alternating photos of the daily life of the builders of BAM, taken by journalists.

The Ust-Ilimskaya hydroelectric dam under construction.

Bratskaya power station.

Krasnoyarsk hydroelectric power station on the Yenisei.

The Vilyuiskaya hydroelectric dam.

Power transmission poles.

Key words

Faults of the Earth's crust.
Mineral deposits.
Hydroelectric power station.


A.A. Trofimuk, akademik. V.P. Solonenko, chlen korespondent AN SSSR.

Locations: Eastern Siberia


Siberian Branch of the USSR Academy of Sciences Institute of the Earth's Crust. Siberian Branch of the USSR Academy of Sciences Institute of Geology and Geophysics. Chuymanovskoye deposit of coking coal. Ust-Ilimskaya HPP. Bratskaya HPP. Krasnoyarsk hydroelectric power station. Vilyuyskaya HPP.

Reel №5

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Dispatcher of the Unified Energy System of the country.

Distribution station.

Aluminum production.

Aluminum ingots.

Director of the Institute of Thermophysics SB USSR Academy of Sciences corresponding member of the USSR Academy of Sciences S.S. Kutateladze talks about the prospects of energy development.

Panorama of the Siberian forest.


The director of the Institute of Inorganic Chemistry of the SB Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Academician A.V. Nikolaev, talks about the treatment of wastewater discharged into the rivers of Siberia.

The bank of the Siberian river.

Director of the Institute of Cytology and Genetics of the SB Academy of Sciences of the USSR Academician D.K. Belyaev talks about the natural resources of Siberia.

Panorama of the winter taiga.

Mink bred by scientists of the Institute of Cytology and Genetics.

Scientists have tamed the most insidious predator of the taiga, the wolverine.

Sable and salongoy, silver-black fox, otter.

Otter eats at the table with scientists.

Panorama of the winter taiga.

Scientists of the Siberian Institute of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry have created a phytotron, an artificial climate station.

In the phytotron chambers, you can create a climate of any region of Siberia and select the most productive cereal for each region.

In the phytotron, you can harvest 2-3 crops a year.

Reducing the time for plant breeding.

Cereals grown in phytotron.

Ears of various cereals.

Director of the Institute of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry of the SB Academy of Sciences of the USSR Corresponding member of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR F.E. Reimers talks about the prospects of growing new vegetables and fruits.

A greenhouse created by scientists with a collapsible coating and heating in the depth of the soil.

Water sprayers in the greenhouse.

As a result, several harvests per year.

Cucumbers and tomatoes on branches.


Key words

Nature conservation.


S.S. Kutateladze,chlen-korrespondent AN SSSR. A.V. Nikolaev, akademik. D.K. Belyaev, akademik. F.E. Rejmers, chlen-korrespondent AN SSSR.

Locations: Siberia [926]


Institute of Thermophysics SB AS USSR. Institute of Inorganic Chemistry SB of the USSR Academy of Sciences. Institute of Cytology and Genetics of the SB Academy of Sciences of the USSR. Siberian Institute of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry.

Reel №6

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Alternating frames with berries and mushrooms in the Siberian taiga.

Fish in the river.

Fish caught and fish processed.

A flock of sheep.

Scientists discuss the problems of supplying BAM workers and the population who will come to develop Siberia with food, technical development.

The director of the Institute of Economics and Organization of Industrial Production of the SB Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Academician A.G. Aganegyan, talks about the economic benefits of creating territorial production complexes.

A map of one such complex in Yuzhno-Yakutsk, where there is a Chulmonovskoye coking coal deposit, iron ore and a gas field nearby.

There is a possibility of creating a large metallurgical complex.

Mathematical model of the territorial-industrial complex.

Bratskaya dam, ryadoi Bratsky territorial and industrial complex.

Photos of the beginning of construction.

Builders' tents.

The first houses.

New buildings.

Panorama of Bratsk.

Stadium and shops.

Schoolchildren in the classroom draw their city.

Drawings of children.

Alternation of shots from the construction of the railway and children at school, drawing their future.

View of BAM from a helicopter.

The cockpit.

Taiga space.

Key words

Territorial and industrial complex.


A.G. Aganjegyan, akademik.

Locations: Eastern Siberia. Bratsk.


BAM. Bratsk territorial production complex.

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