Navigation echo sounders and logs (1981)

Documentary №60749, 4 parts, duration: 0:35:57, black-white
Production: Lennauchfilm (LNF)
Camera operators:A.Vinogradov, V.Ushkov
Sound mixer:B.Pozdnyakov
Music designer:V.Panchenko



The film, created by order of the Ministry of the Navy of the USSR, to study the composition and operation of navigation devices.

Reel №1

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A sailboat sails on the sea.

The navigator plots a course.

A sea buoy on the background of a white steamer.

Vintage navigation tools.

Collage of pictures with tools.

Electrical navigation devices.

Echo sounder, hydro compass, lag, auto steering.

A cartoon explaining the three dimensions of the coordinates of a ship at sea.

A picture showing the relief of the bottom of the North Atlantic Ocean.

A drawing illustrating the depth of the bottom under the vessel.

A cartoon telling about the use of echo in depth measurements.

Sound waves in different environments.

The lower the frequency of the sound, the greater the distance the sound travels.

Laws of sound passage of the marine environment.

The formula of the signal depth in hydroacoustics.

An image of a dolphin and a bat using ultrasound to measure distances.

Cartoon explaining the echo sounder device.

Sea vessels sail on the sea.

Key words

Navigation tools.
Principles of echolocation.

Reel №2

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The ship is docked.

Repair work is underway.

On the ship, the echo sounder kit includes a vibrator-emitter and a vibrator-receiver, which are installed in the bottom of the vessel.

The device of the wheelhouse.

Among the equipment is a pointer, a recorder, a filter and an amplifier.

A relay sending device is installed in one of the lower rooms.

Pointer device.

A cartoon explaining the operation of the pointer and the vibrator receiver.

Between the sending of the pulse and the return of the echo signal, time passes during which the uniformly rotating disk rotates at an angle corresponding to the measured depth.

A scale with divisions in meters is placed in front of the disk, and the measured depth is calculated using it.

The formula for the rotation of the disk.

Example of calculation.

The recorder is used to automatically record the depths and control the sending of ultrasonic pulses.

The signal is sent, received and amplified in the same way as when the pointer is working.

Explanation of the recorder operation.

For the vibrator and the echo sounder, two holes are made in the bottom of the vessel at a distance of 1 meter.

The layout of the echo sounder equipment on the ship.

The internal structure of the vibrator-emitter.

The procedure for preparing the echo sounder for operation.

Before the start of the voyage in the port, the depth is measured with a manual lot.

This depth must match the depth indicated by the echo sounder.

The coincidence of the readings is regulated by an automatic centrifugal regulator.

When the recorder is working, there should be a record of the zero mark and depth.

If the ship is standing, then there will be a straight line on the paper.

When measuring depths of less than 15 meters, there may be a zero-mark flash in the pointer, but there is no depth reading.

You need to turn on the zero cancellation scheme.

Then the zero mark disappears and the pointer shows only the depth.

The recorder also has a zero cancellation scheme, it should be used at depths of less than 15 meters.

The vibrator receiver works only if there is a residual magnetization of the core.

The button located in the amplifier turns on the magnetization circuit for a short time.

Key words

The echo sounder device.
Preparing the echo sounder for operation.

Reel №3

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The navigator plots the course of the ship.

The ship is continuously counted.

The course is determined by the compass, and the speed of the vessel and the distance traveled using a lag.

A cartoon explaining the principle of operation of the hydrodynamic lag.

Formulas for determining the speed of the vessel.

The disadvantages of hydrodynamic lags are weak sensitivity at low speed and the need for frequent purging.

The induction lag is free from these disadvantages.

A cartoon explaining the operation of the induction lag.

In the induction lag, the sensing element, the initial sensor is an induction converter.

Two insulated electrodes are installed in the bottom of the vessel, and a magnet is also located there.

Magnetic lines of force penetrate the water column and an EMF occurs between the electrodes, proportional to the speed of the vessel.

In such a model, you can remove the signal, amplify it and measure it.

A permanent magnet in the circuit causes significant interference.

A circuit with an alternating current electromagnet is more efficient.

Let's try to isolate the converter by simulating a stationary vessel.

In the absence of water movement, the device detects only EMF interference.

When the vessel is moving, in addition to interference, there is a useful signal Uc in the form of a sine wave.

It is proportional to the speed of the vessel.

The interference signal does not depend on the speed and has the form of a cosine.

Cartoon explaining the block diagram of the induction lag.

The induction lag circuit is assembled on elements that are used on modern computing devices.

The functional circuit consists of three main parts, which is called the analog part, the voltage-time converter of the PNV and the time-digit converter of the PVC.

A cartoon explaining the composition of the analog part.

Key words

The principle of operation of the induction lag.

Reel №4

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A cartoon explaining the composition and operation of the analog part.

A cartoon explaining the composition and work of the PNV.

A cartoon explaining the composition and work of the PVTs.

The induction lag kit includes the following devices.

Induction converter.

The central device.

Power supply device.

Matching device.

Speed indicator.

Combined speed and distance indicator.

Checking and adjusting the induction lag consists of three operations.

Calibration, zero setting and zoom control.

A cartoon explaining the calibration process.

Operations before performing calibration.

A cartoon explaining the zero setting.

Operations related to performing a zero setting.

A cartoon explaining the zoom control.

Operations related to performing zoom control.

Alternating frames with naval vessels.

Key words

The composition and operation of the induction lag.
Setting the induction lag.

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