Lipids (1981)

Documentary №71087, 2 parts, duration: 0:19:55
Production: Lennauchfilm (LNF)
Camera operators:V.Sinicin, E.Strausov



Recommended by the Ministry of Higher and Secondary Special Education for use as a teaching aid in higher educational institutions.

Reel №1

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Along with proteins and carbohydrates, lipids, from the Greek word lipos -fat, determined the structure and bioenergetics of the cell - the basis of all life on earth.

Complex lipids and proteins are the main building blocks of cell membranes.

Cartoon explaining the location of lipids in the cell, hydrophilicity and hydrophobicity of lipids.

The purpose of simple lipids.

Simple lipids are only hydrophobic.

The behavior of simple lipids in the aqueous medium of the tissue.

These fats, along with carbohydrates and proteins, are sources of energy necessary for metabolism, movement, muscle contractions and maintaining body temperature.

Cells under a microscope.

Movement of tadpoles.


Camels in the desert.

Spare fats can maintain the water balance in the body (hump in a camel).

1 g of fat oxidizes to form 1.5g of water.

Due to the low thermal conductivity, fats protect the body from the cold (sea lions), protect against mechanical influences.

The location of fat depots on the example of a sea lion.

Fats can be transported through blood and lymphatic vessels in the form of an emulsion.

Cows eat hay.

Pigs eat food.

Fattening pig complex.

Food rich in carbohydrates is processed inside the animal's body into fats and proteins.

Packaging of pork meat.

Calorie table on the background of a still life.

The biological functions of lipids are explained by their physicochemical properties.

The composition of the lipid molecule includes carbon, hydrogen and oxygen atoms.

Moreover, carbon atoms are in the most reduced form, forming long hydrocarbon chains.

This explains their high caloric content and hydrophobicity.

Samples of organic solvents in which lipids are dissolved.

Cartoon explaining the composition and structure of lipids.

Fats, which mainly contain saturated acids, are solid and refractory.

Pork and beef fat.

The seller pours vegetable oil.

Unsaturated acids predominate in vegetable oil glycerines.

As X-ray diffraction analysis has shown, acid residues can be located on different sides of the glycerin residue.

A cartoon explaining the composition and structure of wax.

Cartoon explaining the composition and structure of phospholipids.

Substantiation of hydrophilicity and hydrophobicity of complex lipids.

Lipids of plant origin are the most widespread in nature.

Plant lipids accumulate in seeds and fruits of plants, which are the main source of vegetable fats.

The main objectives of the production of vegetable fats are to extract the oil from the seeds as fully as possible and to purify it from impurities.

Unloading of sunflower seeds from the car.

Storage conditions of huge stocks of seeds and grains should prevent oxidative and hydrolytic destruction of lipids.

A cartoon showing the peeling of the grain from the shell.

Separation of the kernels from the husk.

Then the seeds are crushed and flattened, thus opening their cellular structures.

The resulting mass is subjected to moisture-heat treatment and fed into the pressing presses, where up to 80% of the oil is squeezed out of it.

The fats remaining in the cake are extracted with organic solvents.

The oil obtained by pressing and extraction is carefully filtered to separate mechanical impurities, and then enters the refining department for final purification.

A cartoon showing one of the methods of refining oils.

Centrifugal separators for oil refining.

Oil desadoration.

Packaging of vegetable oil.

Key words

The structure of lipids.
Animal fats.
Vegetable oils.

Reel №2

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Industrial processing of fats is based on chemical reactions characteristic of triglycerides.

These reactions are worked out in laboratories before they are introduced into production.

Cartoon explaining the hydrolysis of fats.

Study of saponification reaction in the laboratory.

A cartoon explaining the saponification reaction is essentially a neutralization reaction.

Samples of the by-product of the soap saponification reaction.

Cartoon explaining the washing effect of soap.

Soap production line.

A hydrogenation operation is performed in the laboratory.

As a result of saturation of glycerides with hydrogen, solid fats can be obtained from liquid fats.

Hydrogen is supplied to the fat mass under low pressure.

The reaction takes place at a temperature of about 200 degrees.

A cartoon explaining the hydrogenation process.

The resulting hydrogenated fats are purified from the catalyst on filters.

The transesterification reaction makes it possible to obtain a fat product of an average triglyceride composition from solid and liquid fats.

Melted fat and vegetable oil are poured into the laboratory reactor.

A catalyst is added to the fat mixture.

As a result, new triglycerides are formed.

Industrial processing of fats by transesterification makes it possible to obtain modified fats, which together with hydrogenated fats are the basis for obtaining margarine.

Samples of margarine.

Margarine in its structure is a complex water-fat emulsion stabilized by an emulsifier.

Cartoon explaining the process of emulsifier stabilization.

The main raw materials for the production of margarine are various fats and water-milk mixtures.

Margarine production line.

Collage of movie frames.

Key words

Processing of fats.

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