Optical instruments. (1990)

Documentary №51565, 2 parts, duration: 0:18:52
Production: Centrnauchfilm (CNF)
Director:Belov N.



Educational film about the theory of light, demonstrated experiments on geometric optics, interference phenomena are revealed and diffraction of light.

Reel №1

Footage frameFootage frameFootage frameFootage frame



Castle on the background of mountains.

A flowering tree.

Large - apple blossom.

Red tulips.

Glaciers in the mountains.

The camera obscura is depicted against the background of an old drawing.

Schematic representation of the eye.

Pinhole camera with lens.

Optical scheme of astronomer Kepler's eye.

If you wear glasses that turn the image 180 degrees.

The brain stabilizes the image after a while.

In the 17th and 18th centuries, scientists realized that each layer in the eye is different from each other.

The eye is a complex composite optical device, where the lack of one lens is corrected by the next.

Samples of optical glasses.

The lens.


Optical devices of the 17th century.

Before our era, the law of reflection from a mirror surface was established.

Experience confirms another law - the law of refraction of light.

In a glass of water, the refraction of the pencil image is visible.

The law of refraction of rays at the boundary of two media.

A ray of light falling obliquely on a plane-parallel layer of glass leaves the layer parallel to the original direction.

The silvery reflections of waves on the water are due to the optical properties of water.

When the beam passes from a denser (water) medium to a less dense (air), it is deflected more strongly than the original beam.

There may be a situation when the beam is so strong

it will deviate from the vertical, which will initially slide along the interface of the media, and then remain in the water.

This phenomenon is called total internal reflection.

This phenomenon is used in light guides.

A cartoon explaining this phenomenon.

Light guides are used to transmit information.

The laws of reflection and refraction are used in all ray geometrical optics devices.



Mirrors, flat and concave, convex.

Students' work in the optical laboratory.

Kettler pipe diagram.

Portrait of Leeuwenhoek, inventor of the microscope.

The world of microbes.

Modern microscopes.

Drawings of various models of microscopes.

Modern astrometric and geodetic instruments originate from medieval astrolabes.

Key words


Calendar: 1990

Reel №2

Footage frameFootage frameFootage frameFootage frame

A lens was attached to the pinhole camera.

Soon a photographic plate appeared.

Various cameras.

An optical device is effective if its optical system is consistent.

The diameters of the lenses and diaphragms, the distance between them should be such that the light loss is minimal.

A collection of movie cameras.

One of the first movie cameras.

Modern movie cameras.

Prismatic binoculars.

The rainbow phenomenon.

Newton's experience in laboratory classes.

Experience shows that white light contains all the colors of the rainbow.

A cartoon showing the receipt of Newton's rings.

The rings are obtained due to the interference of light.

Newton's experiment in light diffraction.

The seashore.

Waves can amplify each other and weaken each other.

A cartoon explaining the wave theory.

A cartoon showing the mutual influence of light waves.

A cartoon explaining the nature of interference using the example of a soap bubble.

A cartoon explaining the difference between interference and diffraction.

The concept of a diffraction grating.

An optical device based on a diffraction grating is used to decompose white light into components, i.e. to obtain the spectrum of any radiation source.

The telescope.

The interference phenomenon was used to create more advanced devices.

The thinnest interference film of silica is applied to glass or other transparent substance, thereby increasing the transmission of light by these materials.

The process of enlightenment of optics.


Students in the laboratory.

Alternating photos of scientists who have made discoveries in the wave theory of light.

New ideas about light made it possible to create new devices, such as lasers.

The laser circuit.

Laser welding.

Holographic images taken with a laser.

The telescope.


Key words

Optical devices.

Calendar: 1990

Our website uses "cookies" to give you the best, most relevant experience. By continuing to browse the site, you agree to our use of cookies. See our User Agreement, Privacy Policy and Cookies Policy.