Machines for harvesting potatoes. (1985)

Documentary №52056, 2 parts, duration: 0:19:27
Production: Centrnauchfilm (CNF)
Director:Yurlovskij V.
Camera operators:V.Sveshnikov


The film tells about the technology Potato combines different modifications. (Part 1 - The content corresponds to the name. Diggers. Combines different.)

Reel №1

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Potato diggers and potato harvesters.

The potato digger is a light mounted machine.

It is aggregated with a tractor of the "Belarus" type.

The working bodies of the potato digger are powered by the tractor's power take-off shaft.

The machine digs up potatoes, frees them from the tops and soil, lays the crop on the soil surface for subsequent selection.

When the ploughshare is working, the layer is cut from two adjacent rows.

On the main elevator, part of the soil is sifted and the tubers are separated from the tops.

This is facilitated by shaking the elevator with an asterisk.

At the cascade elevator, tubers are further separated from impurities, and guide flaps form rolls of tubers, remnants of tops and soil.

Potatoes are manually collected in bags.

Harvesting by combine harvester.

The semi-mounted machine is aggregated with the tractor "Belarus" and DT75 with narrow tracks.

The connection is maneuverable and easily transported to the cleaning site.

The design of the combine.

On the composite tubular frame of the combine, digging ploughshares with pads and a shaking mechanism are mounted.

The excavation of a layer of earth with tubers is shown.

Conveyors of the main and auxiliary elevator.

The rods are covered with rubber shock absorbers to protect the tubers from damage when shaken.

The main elevator has a forced shaking mechanism for the destruction of the formation and separation of fine soil.

The second elevator with passive shaking produces further separation of the soil.

Rubber lump crushers.

Tubers pass between the crushers, and clumps of soil are destroyed.

The gap between the cylinders is adjustable.

Gearboxes are installed to transmit torque.

Lifting drum.

Its rods are covered with plastic to protect the tubers from damage.

In the drum, small impurities are separated and tubers are fed to the rolling slide.

The slide is a short conveyor with a rubber coating.

It serves to separate tubers and impurities coming from the drum.

Bulkhead table for final cleaning of tubers from impurities.

Loading conveyor for lifting tubers from the table into the hopper.

Storage bin.

Unloading from the bunker to the car.

A cartoon explaining the operation of the combine.

Various components of the combine.

The territory of the plant with stored potato harvesters.

Before work, it is necessary to check all the components of the combine.

Special attention should be paid to the presence of lubrication in the gearboxes and bearings.

The harvester is attached to the tractor.

Preparation of the combine for work.

Installation of running wheels on the width of the aisles.

The machine is ready to work.

Key words

Potato digger.
Potato harvester.

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The final adjustment of the machine is made in the field.

When receiving cut tubers during harvesting, it means that the depth of the ploughshares is insufficient.

The harvester rotates the steering wheel to change the depth.

With excessive deepening, the machine is overloaded with a mass of soil, there are losses of tubers.

The degree of sifting of the soil on the main elevator is changed by adjusting the mechanism of forced shaking.

The combine harvester chooses the speed of the machine so that 60-70% of the soil is sifted out on the main elevator.

Shaking on the second elevator is carried out by preload rollers or asterisks.

There are cases when the tops are incompletely separated from the root crop and thrown away with it.

In such cases, it is necessary to adjust the topping mechanism.

Under normal operating conditions of the combine, only impurities enter the impurity conveyor from the bulkhead table.

On heavy lumpy soils, potatoes get together with impurities.

By switching the reverse, they are directed to re-separation.

The soils on the site are not the same.

Overload of working bodies is possible.

Safety couplings should be triggered here.

The couplings also work when foreign objects get into the car.

Potato harvesting is carried out in various ways.

By direct combining, combined or separate method.

With direct harvesting, all harvesting operations are carried out directly by the combine itself.

Unloading of the hopper is also possible without stopping the combine.

As a rule, a group method of harvesting is used when several combines are working in the field.

Combined cleaning method.

Then a potato digger works in the field in conjunction with a combine harvester.

The combine harvester, together with the cleaning of its rows, picks up the potato digger rolls.

On heavy, viscous soils, a separate method is used.

The combine harvester works as a picker of previously dug potatoes.

Self-propelled combines.

It is designed for harvesting four rows of potatoes at once.

Productivity increases.

The cleaning process of this combine is similar to the cleaning of the previous combine.

Loading a truck with harvested potatoes.

Key words

Mechanical potato harvesting.

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