The Secret of a Substance. (1956)
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Seascape, the sun above the horizon.
Waves wash over the coastal rocks.
Panorama of the foothills.
View of a part of the taiga.
A butterfly on a flower.
Decaying remains of a tree trunk in the forest, a young shoot sprouts through the bottom.
Forest landscapes, a bee on a flower.
Surf at the coastal cliffs.
Bust of the Greek philosopher Democritus.
View of the rocky seashore.
Image of a Catholic cathedral.
Books burning in the fire.
Street decoration of a medieval city.
The door to the alchemist's laboratory opens.
The alchemist conducts experiments to uncover the mystery of the substance (game footage).
The course of the experiment, the ingredients for the experiments.
The action of the Philosopher's Stone (animation).
The alchemist's attempts to prepare the Philosopher's Stone.
An open book on alchemy.
The Alchemist is working on a book.
A stuffed owl on the wall.
The water mill wheel rotates.
The potter puts the finished dishes in the kiln.
The first furnaces for smelting metal from ore.
The smelting process.
Glassblower at work.
Throwing raw materials for glass into the furnace.
Ready-made glass container.
Preparation of green paint from red copper.
English scientist Robert Boyle in his laboratory (game footage).
Boyle leafs through an alchemical work.
Simple and complex substances in laboratory vessels.
Boyle with a candle in his hand.
A burning candle among the vessels with substances.
Boyle is sitting by the fire.
The process of turning lead into a yellow powder when heated in a retort.
Weighing the retort with the resulting powder.
Demonstration of the property of fire, as a kind of all-pervading essence, according to Boyle (animation).
M. V. Lomonosov in his laboratory (game footage).
Demonstration of Boyle's experience, lead combines with air (animation).
Lomonosov's repetition of Boyle's experience.
Weighing a sealed retort, demonstrating the preservation of the substance.
Lomonosov conducts an experiment on the study of the conservation of the energy of motion.
The blacksmith at work.
The vibration of the smallest invisible particles of matter under the blows of a hammer (animation).
Hardening of metal in the snow.
Winter forest landscape.
Demonstration of the destruction of a substance with an increase in the speed of movement between particles (animation).
A stream of meltwater.
movement of matter particles.
Geography and Nature; Flora and fauna; Professions; Figures of science Social life; Biography; Science
Lomonosov in his laboratory conducts experiments on the study of molecules and atoms (game footage).
The course of the experiment with sulfur and mercury, sulfur and mercury atoms (animation).
Formation of cinnabar molecules by pairwise coupling of sulfur and mercury atoms (animation).
Cinnabar and its components-mercury and sulfur.
Books on the shelves.
Professor A.M. Butlerov removes the book from the shelf, opens it (game shots).
The book of the German chemist Kolbe in the hands of Butlerov.
Butlerov puts down Kolbe's book.
Butlerov writes a chemical formula on the blackboard with chalk.
The combination of atoms in the molecules of a substance (animation).
Examples of the connection of ether and alcohol atoms (animation).
Vessels with ethyl ether and butyl alcohol.
An example of the interaction of sodium with ether and alcohol.
Drawing of moraine grass.
Painting the fabric with red alizarin paint extracted from the roots of the moraine.
Comparison of alizarin and antrocene molecules extracted from coal tar.
Experience in the preparation of artificial alizarin from coal tar, the interaction of molecules during the experiment (animation).
Adding hydrochloric acid to the solution and obtaining alizarin from coal tar.
Fragment of the publication of the theory of the structure of molecules, created by Butlerov.
The building of the St.
Petersburg University (animation).
Interiors of the laboratory of D. I. Mendeleev.
Pages of" Fundamentals of Chemistry " by Mendeleev.
Mendeleev in his laboratory (game footage).
Samples of substances in laboratory vessels with the designation of their atomic weight, spread out on the table.
Arrangement of groups of elements with similar properties.
An example of the reaction of alkali metals with water and the formation of caustic alkalis.
Samples of caustic alkalis.
Samples of the same composition of acids formed from halogens.
Mendeleev lays out the cards with the symbols of substances on the table (game frames).
The difference in the atomic weights of different substances (animation).
Cards with the designation of similar elements, arranged in groups, with a decrease in the atomic weight in each vertical column.
Mendeleev reflects on the periodic table of chemical elements (game frames).
Cards with the designations of the elements, spread out on the table.
Mendeleev at his desk makes sketches of the table (game frames).
The manuscript of the periodic table.
Mendeleev's publication in the Journal of the Russian Chemical Society.
Mendeleev at the desk (game shots).
Publication of the discovery of gallium in a French journal.
Mendeleev puts a letter to the French chemist Boisbaudran in an envelope.
Buabodran again determines the specific gravity of gallium (game frames).
Boisbaudran is at his desk making calculations.
Monument to Mendeleev.
Panel in the form of a periodic table of chemical elements above the monument.
The movement of oxygen atoms, one of the atoms is part of the iron oxide molecule (animation).
The hand picks up a rusty horseshoe and throws it into a pile of scrap metal.
Sending scrap metal to the cupola.
The release of an oxygen atom under the influence of heating.
Smoke from the factory chimney.
Smoke over the tree.
Decomposition of a carbon dioxide molecule in a green leaf and preservation of an oxygen atom (animation).
Lightning in the sky.
The place of oxygen in the Periodic table of elements.
The experience of the French chemist Becquerel with uranium salt.
Maria and Pierre Curie conduct experiments with uranium ore in their laboratory (game shots), samples of the substances under study.
Conducting experiments on the extraction of an unknown substance from the ore.
Marie and Pierre Curie in the laboratory, the course of experiments (game shots).
The discovery by the Curies of salt of a new chemical element - radium, contained in the ore.
Marie Curie adds a new element to the periodic table.
Pierre Curie conducts research on radium salts (game footage).
The temperature of radium salts.
The glow of radium salts, which are in different states, the Curies observe the glow.
The place of radium in the periodic table, the separation of helium and radon from radium, and the indication of their atomic weight (animation).
The sum of the atomic weight of helium and radon, equal to the atomic weight of radium.
Experience in the decay of radium atoms.
Portrait of the French physicist A. Poincare.
Pages of the opened book.
The title of V. I. Lenin's work "Materialism and empirio-criticism".
Publications of the works of researchers from different countries.
Experience the interaction of radium and zinc sulfide, moving small alpha particles of radium under a magnifying glass.
Diagram of the movement of alpha particles (animation).
Obtaining a narrow beam of alpha particles when radium is placed in a box with a hole, free passage of alpha particles through a thin sheet of gold (animation).
The passage of alpha particles through the atoms, some fly off to the side (animation).
The structure of the atom.
Portrait of the English scientist Rutherford.
Experience in attracting electric charges of different names and repelling electric charges of the same name.
Diagram of an electric element consisting of elementary charges (animation).
Formation of an electron shell around the nucleus of an atom (animation).
An example of a hydrogen atom with an indication of the number of charges in the nucleus.
Creating a preponderance of positive charges in the potassium atom (animation).
The capture of an extra electron by a chlorine atom and its transformation into a negative ion (animation).
Fusion of ions into a molecule under the influence of electric forces (animation).
Transfer of energy by molecules to each other (animation).
Gorenje piece of potassium in a jar with chlorine, the process of formation of potassium chloride.
Geography and Nature
The stoker throws coal into the furnace.
Burning coal in the furnace of the locomotive.
Water vapor molecules hit the piston of the steam engine, the movement of the piston (animation).
The connecting rod rotates the wheels of the locomotive.
The control unit of the locomotive in the driver's booth.
The locomotive is on its way.
Open the doors of the furnaces of steam locomotives, power plants.
Burning coal in the furnace.
The structure of radium, the nuclei of radium atoms with energy reserves (animation).
Decay of the nucleus of a radium atom (animation).
Flying helium core(animation).
The atomic "lattice" of radium.
Glowing radium in a test tube.
Comparison of 1 gram of radium and half a ton of coal when the amount of heat is released.
View of Wilson's camera.
The scheme of the Wilson camera, the process of accelerating the fission of the radium nucleus (animation).
Study of photos of traces of movement of alpha particles.
Launching nitrogen into the Wilson chamber.
Alpha particles permeate nitrogen atoms (animation).
Study of images of the motion of alpha particles.
Alpha particle collision in the image.
The formula for the formation of hydrogen and oxygen nuclei from helium and nitrogen nuclei - the first artificial transformation of the elements.
A special antenna in the mountains to use the electric charge of lightning.
Type of installation for creating artificial lightning.
Creating artificial lightning.
Acceleration of particles between hydrogen atoms, rare hits in the nuclei of atoms (animation).
Mutual repulsion of positively charged particles and nuclei (animation).
View of the Cyclotron accelerator system.
Switching on the cyclotron.
Motion of particles in the cyclotron chamber (animation).
Works on the structure of the core.
The scientist prepares the cyclotron for the next experiment.
Type of installation.
Placing the split nuclei in a special container.
The emission of new unknown particles by beryllium under the influence of radium (animation).
Diagram of the paths of the projectile that broke the core during beryllium irradiation.
Diagram of the action of neutrons on the nuclei of atoms (animation).
The composition of the nucleus of the uranium atom, the interaction of protons and neutrons (animation).
Violation of the balance of forces inside the uranium nucleus when a neutron hits it, nuclear fission with the release of energy.
Scheme of the chain reaction of fission of uranium nuclei (animation).(animation).
The structure of the nuclei of uranium atoms with different numbers of neutrons and the average number of particles called isotopes (animation).
Stopping the reaction in the element uran-238 (animation).
Diagram of deceleration of neutron motion using graphite (animation).
Scientists insert rods of uranium into the holes of graphite bricks.
Deceleration of the velocity of fast neutrons when they hit graphite and hit the nuclei of carbon atoms (animation).
Scientists add uranium and graphite to produce the reaction.
Neutron paths through uranium atoms (animation).
Scientists descend from the graphite pyramid.
Removing the safety rods.
A chain reaction with an increasing rate of nuclear fission on the oscilloscope screen.
Adjustment of the reaction with a cadmium rod.
Reaction control scheme, neutron absorption by cadmium (animation).
Scheme of energy production during the fission of uranium nuclei (animation).
Diagram of the installation for heating water with uranium (animation).
Radiation of neutrons by uranium, protecting a concrete casing from radiation (animation).
View of one of the first uranium reactors.
Scheme for extracting isotope-235 atoms from natural uranium and increasing the chain reaction (animation).
Rock avalanche in the mountains.
Newsreel: the explosion of an atomic bomb.
Nuclear weapons tests at the test site.
Views of the Japanese city of Hiroshima destroyed by the nuclear bombing in 1945.
Drawings depicting primitive man who possessed fire and Prometheus, who stole fire from the gods.
Burning wooden buildings.
Fire in the furnace.
The text of the Stockholm Declaration on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons.
Newsreel 1950: participants in the session of the Standing Committee of the World Congress of Peace Supporters during the meeting.
The Chairman of the World Peace Council, French scientist F. Joliot-Curie, speaks from the rostrum.
Photos of participants at a meeting in Geneva in 1955 to discuss the use of atomic energy for the benefit of mankind.
A Soviet nuclear physicist is conducting another experiment on the peaceful use of atomic energy.
Types of synchrocyclotron and a new particle accelerator under construction.
View of a part of a nuclear reactor.
Scientists conduct experiments with highly radioactive substances with the help of manipulators, being behind a protective wall.
The work of manipulators.
Destruction of cancer cells in a patient with a cobalt gun.
The use of artificial radioactive substances for welding the components of a ship under construction.
Check the quality of the weld.
A photograph of hidden seam defects.
Type of dredger projectile pumping pulp.
Pipe for pumping pulp.
Source and receiver of radiation on the pipe.
The arrow of the device that shows the composition of the pulp with the help of radiation.
View of the Obninsk NPP building.
A sign with the name of the nuclear power plant.
Station dispatchers at the remote control.
The station's uranium-graphite reactor.
Turbines and generators of the station.
View of a part of a transformer substation.
Power line masts.
A newspaper report on the construction of a nuclear icebreaker.
Layout of the icebreaker.
A high-speed passenger ship powered by a nuclear engine.
The nuclear ship goes under water.
Laying a path through the mountains with the help of atomic energy (animation).
The water rushes into the bed of the irrigation canal.
The melting iceberg crumbles.
Clouds are scattered (animation).
A nuclear-fueled rocket in space, a view of the Earth from space (animation).
PersonnelZholio-Kyuri Frederik -- French physicist, public figure
Calendar1945 1950 1956
Figures of science; International cooperation; International organizations; Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki; Geography and Nature; Industry; Sea and river transport Biography; Science; Space; Foreign policy; Policy; World War II; History; Sectors of the economy; Transportation