Introduction to "Machine parts" (1981)

Documentary №39620, 2 parts, duration: 0:15:49
Production: Sverdlovsk newsreel studio
Camera operators:Kulikov


The film shows various types of machines and components of different purposes, assembling units and a variety of gears.

Reel №1

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The all-terrain vehicle rides along the seashore.

The combine harvester harvests.

A bulldozer at a construction site.

A line for the production of parts.

The control panel.

Computer center.

Cars are driving on the road.

The driver opens the hood of the Lada.

The engine of a passenger car.

The machine is an energy generator.

Passenger train.

A plane taking off.

Candy production and packaging lines.

CNC machines.

Magnetic drives in the computing center.

Automated machine.

Samples of parts - products made of homogeneous material by name and brand without the use of assembly operations.

Identical parts used in different machines to perform the same functions.

Such parts are called general purpose parts.

There are three groups of such details:

- parts from the gear assembly unit;

- parts serving rotational motion;

- connection details.

Samples of details of each group.

A workshop where assembly units are assembled from parts, and then machines are assembled from them.

A cartoon showing which parts and assembly units the excavator is assembled from.

Panorama of the metalworking shop.

When assembling any machine, first of all you have to meet

with various kinds of connections of parts and assembly units.

Connections can be detachable and non-removable.

Example, nut - bolt.

Welded joints are one of the most common permanent joints.

Samples of rivet joints.

Rivet joints on the wing of the aircraft.

The use of permanent joints based on the bonding of metal and non-metallic materials is increasing.

Of the split connections, threaded connections are most often used.

They include nuts, studs, screws, threaded sections of shafts and other elements.

The detachable connections also include keyways for connecting rotating parts together.

In most machines, the mechanical energy used for the drive is the energy of the rotational motion of the motor shaft.

The variety of technological modes of operation of machines necessitates the use of mechanical gears.

A sample of a mechanical transmission.

Passenger car, transmission.

Mechanical transmissions are used to change speeds, torques, or transform types of motion when transferring energy from the engine to the working bodies.

Mechanical friction gears can be friction or belt.

Samples of each type of transmission.

Gearing gears, which include gear cylindrical and conical gears, have become the most widespread in technology.

Gearing gears also include chain gears and screw-nut gears.

Couplings are used to connect the shafts and transmit the torques.

Blind couplings are used for rigid connection of coaxial shafts.

Compensating couplings allow radial and angular displacements of the axes of the connected shafts.

The shaft of the SUV.

Characteristic parts of mechanical gears are shafts and axles.

The shaft is used for fixing parts that transmit torque.

Unlike the shaft, the axis only supports the rotating parts on it.

Key words

Mechanical transmissions.

Reel №2

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Bearings are the supports for shafts and rotating axes.

Rolling bearings are most widely used.

A cartoon telling about the use of radial, radial thrust and self-aligning bearings.

Installation of the sliding bearing.

It has high performance at high angular speeds of shafts, as well as in aggressive environments and other adverse conditions.

Steel rolling line.

During operation, tension occurs in machine parts under the influence of loads.

Most often, these stresses are variable in time and magnitude.

A freight train is coming.

Stresses lead to fatigue failure of parts.

Cartoon about the destruction of axles and shafts from fatigue stresses.

Samples of damaged and destroyed parts from plastic deformations.

Local stresses in the contact zone of the mismatched working surfaces of the parts lead to fatigue staining of the metal.

A characteristic cause of failure of parts is the wear of their rubbing surfaces.

The wear of parts increases dramatically when the lubrication regime is violated.

As a result, the parts lose their original shape, which leads to a violation of the operating mode of the machines, and a violation of strength causes the destruction of parts.

Open-hearth furnace.

High and low temperatures, humidity, aggressiveness of the environment necessitates the use of special high-resistant metals and protective coatings.

Forge press.

The perfection of the designs of any machine is determined by the operability of parts in various conditions and modes of operation.

The performance of the machine is evaluated by criteria, the most important of which is the strength of its parts.

A cartoon telling about the importance of rigidity of details.

Assembly of the turbine rotor.

To ensure reliable operation of high-speed machines, to exclude dangerous resonant vibrations, the parts must be vibration-resistant.

A blacksmith's hammer.

High wear resistance of the rubbing surfaces of parts, their heat resistance at elevated temperatures and corrosion resistance in aggressive environments is a guarantee of high performance, durability and reliability of machines.

The work of the rolling mill.

A car is driving along the road.

Key words

Reasons for the destruction of parts.
The performance of the machine.

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