The film was shot by order of the Ministry of Radio Industry of the USSR, as a methodological material on the use of transistors in production.
A board with transistors.
The concept of an amplifier.
The hardware room at the television studio.
Pulse signal amplifiers are used on all these devices.
Telephone exchange equipment.
Announcer on the radio.
Hardware recording studio.
Harmonic signal amplifiers are used here.
Sound recording devices.
The amplifying element that converts the current energy of the power source into the energy of amplified vibrations is either an electronic lamp or a transistor.
Tube and transistor receivers, a lamp and a transistor are shown against their background.
In comparison with the tube transistor amplifier has significantly smaller dimensions, weight, greater mechanical strength and longer service life.
To power the lamp, more power is required than for a transistor.
Transistor receiver VEF.
The quality of the amplifier is determined by the degree of distortion it introduces.
Signal graphs before and after amplification.
The driver listens to the broadcast of the organ playing on the radio in the car.
The organist plays the organ.
The sound quality is good.
The timbre of the resulting sound in the car is distorted, this is characteristic of frequency distortion.
The essence of these distortions is that in the composition of the output signal, the ratio between the oscillation amplitudes of different frequencies is obtained differently than in the composition of the input signal.
That is, the individual harmonic components of the input signal are not equally amplified.
A cartoon explaining this problem.
The reason is the presence of reactive resistances, the magnitude of which depends on the frequency.
The electrical circuit of the amplifier.
Distortion in the form of a rattling sound.
Changing the input signal due to the nonlinearity of the input and output characteristics of the transistor.
A cartoon explaining nonlinear distortions.
The principle of operation of a transistor amplifier.
The input and output circuit of a transistor amplifier.
A scheme with a common base.
The input electrode is the emitter, and the output collector.
The output turns on the signal consumer.
Cartoon explaining the scheme with a common emitter.
A circuit with a common collector electrode.
Differences in switching schemes.
Schemes of operation of transistors.
Cartoon explaining the operation of transistors in modes A, B And AB.
Switching circuits of transistors.
Block diagram of a multistage amplifier.
The concept of an amplifying cascade.
Electrical diagram of the cascade.
To provide a greater sound gain, the amplification scheme consists of several cascades.
A cartoon explaining the various connections between the cascades.
A cartoon explaining the schemes of terminal single-stroke and two-stroke cascades.
The formula of the resulting magnetic field in a push-pull circuit.
Comparison of samples of single-stroke and two-stroke transformers.
Continuation of the cartoon explaining the operation of the push-pull cascade.
The advantage of a push-pull amplifier.
Connections between cascades.
The efficiency of the push-pull cascade.
A person listens to music on a transistor receiver.
Advantages of push-pull amplifier circuit.
A cartoon explaining the operation of a push-pull cascade in A mode.
A cartoon explaining the operation of a push-pull cascade in B mode.
Advantages of the two-stroke cascade operation in the B mode.
The concept of amplifier feedback.
Block diagram of an amplifier with positive feedback.
The concept of positive feedback.
Formulas for calculating the output voltage and the output voltage coefficient.
The concept of negative feedback.
Block diagram of an amplifier with sequential feedback.
Block diagram of an amplifier with parallel feedback.
Block diagram of an amplifier with voltage feedback.
Block diagram of an amplifier with current feedback.
The circuit of the amplifier with sequential current feedback.
An amplifier circuit with parallel voltage feedback.
The use of negative feedback reduces the gain of the amplifier, but it equalizes the frequency response and reduces frequency distortion.
The use of negative feedback reduces nonlinear distortion.
Transistor blocks in electronics.
The plane takes off.