Mineralogical methods of searches of minerals (1973)

Documentary №55786, 4 parts, duration: 0:38:30
Production: Sverdlovsk newsreel studio
Screenwriters:E.Tumanov, Yu.Gurvich
Camera operators:A.Trifonov


The film was created by order of the Ministry of Higher and Secondary Special Education of the USSR. Various methods of mineral prospecting in various landscapes and different regions of the Soviet Union are being investigated.

Reel №1

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The AN-2 plane takes off.

View from the cockpit.

The equipment installed on the aircraft.

The plane flies over the site of the explosion of the Tunguska meteorite.

The plane is landing.

Members of the expedition develop a film from aerial photography.

The image shows the concentric structure of the relief, which is characteristic of the paleovolcanic type structure.

The concentric structure is emphasized by the hydro grid.

Tuffs and rod-shaped bodies of ladders can be the centers of action of ancient volcanoes.

Since the structure is volcanic, it is possible to assume the development of deposits of Icelandic spar and some other minerals.

Another picture, here the tectonic discontinuity separating the ladders and Silurian sedimentary deposits is deciphered.

The electromagnetic field map of this area is heterogeneous.

Two anomalies are observed in the zone of tectonic disturbance, which in similar conditions may be associated with the manifestation of magnetite mineralization.

Maps made from aerial photographs reveal even more fully the geological structure of the studied territory.

The tectonic contact of basalts and dolerites with limestone of Silurian age is clearly read here.

Color aerial photographs make it even easier to decipher geological objects.

The paint highlights rocks of various compositions.

Yellow - sandstones.

Purple - volcanic rocks.

Red - clay shales.

With the help of modern equipment, geological features identified during decryption are transferred to topographic maps.

Geological survey of huge areas of the little-explored Siberian taiga is being carried out.

A helicopter takes off.

Based on the results of preliminary decryption, reference areas are selected for ground work.


River, helicopter view.


A village in the taiga.

The dog is lying in the river in shallow water.

There is a rubber boat nearby.

A fish is swimming in clear water.

A member of the expedition takes a pike caught from the boat.

A geologist conducts analyses in a mini laboratory in the parking lot.

An aerial photograph is considered fully decrypted if it is stopped by at least one ground route.

Geologists are going to the route, putting things in the boat.

Geologists are walking through the taiga.

During such routes, rock samples, slurry and geochemical samples are taken.

An interesting object has been discovered, an outcrop of coarse-grained tuffs that overlap the productive suite of effusions.

The geologist breaks off the sample.

A strip of Icelandic spar is visible in the rock.

Hydrogeochemical samples also note an increased calcium content in spring water.

For a more confident forecast, drilling and mining operations should be carried out.

Light drilling rigs can be delivered to any point of the taiga.

The drilling rig is working.

When studying the core, calcite mineralization is detected.

Geologists are considering a map of the area.

A geologist checks a rock sample from the route.

Rock samples that indicate the presence of Icelandic spar.

Amphibious detachments included in the expedition of group geological survey.

An aerial photography helicopter flies away from the object.

Key words

The first stage of geological exploration.
The expedition.

Locations: Siberia [926]

Reel №2

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The boat is floating on the river.

There is a dog sitting on the bow of the boat.

The boat arrives at the geologists' camp.

Geologists walk along the riverbank, examining the stones brought by the river.

Observing the composition of the debris, among modern river sediments, and noting ore deposits, it is possible to trace them to the root outlets.

If an ore-bearing sample is found, then a search route is laid up the river.

A cartoon explaining the direction of the search.

If the samples have stopped appearing on the river, then they are brought by tributaries.

The sample is not doused by the river at all, which means that the root exit is nearby.

The method of studying the dressings.

The dressings are the remnants of heavy minerals left after washing the rock.

Flowers on the river bank.

A river in the taiga.

Washing the dressing in a wooden tray.

To get the black concentrate from the sample, up to 99% of its original weight is removed.

In the Urals, an Asian bucket is used to search for gold placers for washing.

A preliminary dressing map is drawn up, indicating the places where the sample should be taken.

Laboratory analysis of the dressings.

Samples taken from the floodplain of the river showed the presence of gold, scheelite and sulfides.

A significant gold content was found in the floodplain.

So it is necessary to conduct a detailed study of the floodplain, especially the upper parts.

This study is carried out with the help of a motor drill.

In the lower parts of the floodplain, samples are taken from the burrows.

The received samples are washed with the help of vibrostalls.

The study of dressings in the laboratory.

Weighing of the dressing.

First, the magnetic fraction is separated using an ordinary magnet.

The electromagnetic fraction is selected with a stronger magnet.

In a heavy liquid (bromoform), the concentrate is divided by specific gravity.

The use of centrifuges makes separation by specific gravity more productive.

Samples taken in the floodplain of the river showed an industrial gold content.

Workers wash away the soil with a water cannon.

Industrial extraction of loose gold is underway.

Key words

Search for minerals by debris and dressing.

Locations: Ural [920]

Reel №3

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A cartoon explaining the principles of geochemical exploration of fossil materials.

The essence of the search is to search for anomalous areas in comparison with the geochemical background.

Field laboratory.

Measurement of the water temperature in the source.


A grasshopper on a piece of rock.

Places where the bedrock comes to the surface.

The geologist collects samples.

Natural landscape.

Testing of the dispersion flows is usually carried out at the beginning of the work.

Geologists' routes are located along riverbeds, along ravines.

A sample is taken from alluvial deposits.

Samples are taken from each dried-up stream and the lowering of the terrain.

Geologists' camp.

The geologist lays out the samples and prepares them for processing in the field laboratory.

In order to carry out a complex of search operations, it is very important to conduct a preliminary study of the sample as soon as possible.

A partial phase analysis is performed.

By acting with ditizone on the filtered sample solution, geochemists established the presence of high concentrations of copper and zinc in it.

If an increased content of certain elements compared to the geochemical background is detected, it is necessary to check and detail the anomaly.

The geologist on the map indicates such areas.

The search for secondary dispersal areas begins.

Taking into account the position of anomalies, profiles are laid and a representative horizon is tested.

Panorama of the area with geologists working in the field.

In this area, samples are taken from a depth of 15-20 cm from the A1 horizon.

This horizon begins where the roots of plants end.

Samples are sifted and sent for spectral analysis.

The hollow electrode is filled with the sample material and burned in the plasma of an electric arc.

The vapors entering the interelectrode space begin to glow.

The spectrum of this glow is photographed.

The quantitative content of the elements is determined using a microphotometer, measuring the width of the spectrum line.

A schematic map of the area, it indicates the points from which samples with the same concentration of metals were taken.

These points are connected by an isoline.

Abnormal areas are highlighted with color and hatching.

Having this material on the ground, you can try to find traces of a mineral.

Geologist examines brown ironstone and yellow ochre.

This is a direct search sign of copper-pyrite mineralization.

Testing is carried out using a screw drilling rig.

A well passes through the thickness of young sediments until a representative horizon is reached.

A sample is taken from each meter of penetration.

Geochemical searches are carried out in conjunction with geophysical work.

The method of transients.

Equipment for this method of research.

Core drilling.

Here, a sample is also taken from each meter of the penetration and subjected to spectral analysis.

Samples are taken from the pits.

Borehole geophysics is used as a parallel geophysical method, in this case, the contact method of polarization curves.

A spectrogram of one of the anomalous sites.

The lines of increased copper and zinc content are clearly read.

A cartoon explaining the discrepancies between geochemical and geophysical research.

Exploration of pits.

The place where the bedrock comes to the surface.

Key words

Geochemical and geophysical research methods.

Locations: Bashkiria [883]

Reel №4

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Seawater hits the rocky shore.

The sea bay with ships.

The team equips a scuba diver to explore the bottom of the sea.

Far East, coastal zone.

The seabed.

The initial period of the search is a geomorphological analysis of the coastal parts of the continent and the shelf based on visual observations and hydrodynamic studies.

Starfish in the surf.

Geologists arrive at the seashore on an all-terrain vehicle.

The objects of geologists' study can be extended terraces, which rocks are composed of coastal cliffs.

A gold-bearing vein passing through the cliff has been discovered.

The geologist takes rock samples.

Abandoned mining developments.

The developments are more than 100 years old.

Currently, they serve as a search sign of the gold content of coastal deposits.

Placers were formed due to the movement of slope loose sediments towards the sea.

These placers can be confined to sea terraces, beaches and the underwater part of the shelf.

On sandy beaches, extended areas of wave rolling, accumulative zones, storm surges, dunes, sand terraces are studied.

Geologists collect sand samples.

A drilling rig arrives to the geologists.

All work carried out on the shore and in the beach area should orient the search in the underwater part of the shelf.

Geophysical search methods are of great importance.

Geologists unload equipment.

As one of the main ones, the method of sound sonar is used.

A sensor is lowered over the side of the vessel.

The signal reflected from the bottom surface is recorded by the equipment.

The vessel is moving on tacks laid on the basis of geological forecasts.

The geophysical vessel follows the course with the help of two sections.

Tacks are oriented most often perpendicular to the coastline, and in some cases in the direction of flooded river valleys.

At this point on the beach, ground research will be continued by geophysicists on the ship.

On the echogram, a bottom relief scheme is drawn with the allocation of a layer of loose sediments.

This method determines the depth from sea level to the plateau or to the contact between rocks of different densities.

Geologists go on an all-terrain vehicle for geological exploration.

Drilling rig for testing promising sites.

Geologists arrive at the drilling rig.

The vibrating hammer conducts drilling operations.

The resulting core is being studied.

Shock-rope drilling.

The raised material is washed until the dressing is obtained.

This unit helps to get the core with special core collectors.

A geologist examines the core.

Quartz gold-bearing pebbles were found among the sand.

Coastal zone.

Scuba divers at the bottom of the sea.

Key words

Underwater methods of searching for fossils.

Locations: Far East

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