The film was made by order of the USSR State Committee for Vocational and Technical Education as a textbook for training personnel servicing oil trunk pipelines.
Oil rocking chair.
A trench for an oil pipe.
Map with oil pipelines on the territory of the USSR.
Transfer of an oil pipeline across the river.
Points of oil filling in tanks.
A vessel for the transportation of oil.
The composition of the structures of the main oil pipeline.
The scheme of the main oil pipeline, including the linear part, head and intermediate pumping stations and end points.
The linear part consists of pipes with a diameter from 250 to 1220 mm.
Installation of pipes in the trench.
Depth of laying of pipes.
Shut-off valves on the linear section.
The station of cathodic protection and protectors.
Such stations are installed along the route line every 8-15km.
Cartoon explaining how the cathodic protection station protects the pipeline from metal corrosion.
A cartoon explaining how the tread protection station protects the pipeline from metal corrosion.
Linear structures include crossings by rail and over water obstacles.
Cable or relay communication lines are laid along the pipeline, as well as a highway.
The length of the linear part of the pipeline is thousands of kilometers.
View from the plane to the head pumping station.
Oil comes here from oil production sites for subsequent pumping.
The main facilities of the station are a tank farm, retaining and main pumping stations, an oil metering station and other structures.
The tank farm serves to create an oil reserve for the rhythmic operation of the pipeline.
The tank farm consists of metal surface tanks, around which earthen collapses are provided.
Protection of the bottom and bottom of the tanks from corrosion is carried out in a complex with the use of protectors and special coatings.
Back-up pumps are used to create pressure sufficient for cavitation-free operation of the main centrifugal pump.
From 2 to 4 low-pressure back-up pumps are installed at the head station.
The oil moving through the pipeline fills the reservoir, from which it passes through the filters and is fed to the pump inlet pipe.
A cartoon explaining the operation of the pump.
The main pumping station is located in a building that houses halls with main pumps and electric motors.
This equipment serves to create oil pressure capable of moving it through the pipeline to the next pumping station.
The pressure value is selected depending on the length of the section and the profile of the route.
Modern mainline pumps develop a head of up to 190-260 meters and have a flow of up to 12,500 m3/hour.
Cartoon explaining the operation of the main pump.
Direct drive from an electric motor.
Electric motors in explosion-proof housings are directly connected to pumps.
Conventional electric motors are located in a separate room.
In addition to the main units, auxiliary systems are installed at the station to ensure normal conditions for the operation of technological equipment.
Bearing lubrication system.
A reservoir for collecting oil leaks, from which it is subsequently pumped out.
The main oil pipeline.
The main station of the oil pipeline.
Panorama of the pumping station.
Operator's control room.
Control of the pumping station.
View of the oil tanks.
Oil pumping through the pipeline can be post-station or transit.
Scheme of post-station oil pumping.
A cartoon explaining the operation of post-station oil pumping.
3 ways of transit pumping of oil.
A cartoon explaining the pumping operation for each method.
The most progressive way of pumping oil is the operation of the oil pipeline in the pump-to-pump mode.
A cartoon explaining the pumping operation using this method.
When operating in the pump-to-pump mode, the main oil pipeline is a single hydraulic system in which disturbances arising on one section of the pipeline are transmitted sequentially to other sections.
The control panel.
Depending on the type of disturbances, various methods of dealing with them are used.
To eliminate disturbances when the unit is switched off, an automatic pressure control system is installed at one of the pumping stations.
Windows with instrument readings of the control panel of the control system.
To prevent significant disturbances, an oil pipeline protection system is installed against hydraulic shock.
A cartoon explaining the origin of the hydraulic shock.
The main part of the hydraulic shock protection system is a low-inertia oil relief valve.
A cartoon explaining the operation of the valve.
During operation, water, paraffin, mechanical impurities and other deposits accumulate in the pipeline casing, which lead to a decrease in throughput and an increase in oil pumping costs.
Devices for cleaning the inner surface of the pipeline.
Brush scraper, one of the devices for cleaning the inner surface of the pipeline.
The cleaning device is placed in the start-up chamber of the scraper.
From where it enters the pipeline with the flow of oil.
A cartoon explaining the operation of the scraper.
Data on the passage of the scraper on the operator's console.
After the arrival of the scraper in the receiving chamber, the device is disconnected from the main line and cleaned of oil.
The chamber is cleaned of waste and the scraper is removed.
Alternating frames with different types of oil pipeline transport.
The main oil pipeline.
Cleaning of the pipeline.