A film made by order of the USSR State Committee for Vocational and Technical Education, revealing the processes of cleaning household water and wastewater.
Seagulls over the sea.
The bear in the zoo is watered with water from a hose.
A seal swims in the water.
Sunset on the sea.
The river bank overgrown with reeds.
Pedestrians on the city street.
Water drips from the tap.
Photos of starving children in a drop of water.
Dirty water is poured onto the ground.
Alternating frames with various water pollution.
Panorama of the embankment of the industrial city.
Half of the water consumed goes to the needs of agriculture.
Watering the field with a sprinkler machine.
Industry takes 40%.
Mining with artificial moistening of the rock.
10% is used for household purposes.
This part of the water should be especially clean.
Water supply station.
Cleaning is carried out in several stages.
The first stage - with the help of lattices, large mechanical impurities are retained.
Then the water is filtered through a layer of sand.
Biological impurities are disinfected with chlorine or ozone.
Micro-organisms living in water are visible under the microscope.
After cleaning, the water is thoroughly tested in the laboratory.
Clean water is poured into a glass from a jug.
This is water used in the household sphere.
Atmospheric water collected from the surface of the earth, snow.
Water used in production.
Water quality testing laboratory.
The structure of engineering structures, especially chemical ones, includes wastewater treatment plants.
Sewage treatment plants.
Panorama of treatment facilities in chemical production.
The preliminary stage is mechanical cleaning.
First, the water passes through the gratings, on which large mechanical impurities remain.
The water flows by gravity into the receiving tank.
From here, the water is pumped into the sand traps.
Sand traps are horizontal and vertical.
A cartoon explaining the work of a horizontal sand trap.
The sand settles and is carried out by air to special platforms.
The excavator plunges the spent sand into the dump truck.
Vertical pressure filters with granular loading are used for mechanical cleaning.
Crushed anthracite, expanded clay or sand can be used as a loading.
Under pressure, the waste water is filtered and cleaned.
Oil traps are additionally installed in the oil refining production.
Water and oil are separated due to the difference in density.
petroleum products float to the surface and are removed.
The water purified in this way enters the settling tanks, and the collected oil enters the tanks.
Mechanical water purification in additional settling tanks is coming to an end.
Advanced radial sump.
A special device rakes the oil products that have surfaced to the surface.
The teeth contribute to a uniform flow of purified water.
Industrial wastewater containing alkalis, acids are subjected to chemical purification, the basis of which is the neutralization process.
A cartoon explaining the work of the averager.
After the averager, the waste water enters the mixer installation.
Water purification technology.
The further process takes place in the mixer.
The process taking place in the mixer is shown.
Coagulation occurs with the added polyacrylamide.
The process of physico-chemical purification in clarifiers is being completed.
A cartoon showing the filtering process.
One of the types of coagulation is flocculation.
A cartoon explaining the flocculation process.
The methods of physico-chemical purification also include the flotation method.
A cartoon explaining the operation of the flotation device.
Biological treatment is used if wastewater is clogged with organic substances.
The process is carried out in biofilters.
A biofilm consisting of bacteria and protozoa is fixed on a fixed nozzle.
A cartoon explaining the process of bio-purification.
Most often, aerotanks are used for bio-purification.
Panorama of bio-cleaning devices.
Sampling of water analyses.
An aerotank is a concrete tank containing microorganisms.
View of microorganisms under a microscope.
Air is necessary for the vital activity of microorganisms.
The layout shows how air is continuously supplied to the aerotank.
The water flows and is purified, and the active sludge is becoming more and more.
The flow of water with activated sludge is directed to secondary settling tanks.
Here the purified water is separated from the activated sludge.
Only the required amount of sludge is returned to the aerotank, the rest is output.
Water intake for analysis.
Wildflowers on the background of a pond.
Panorama of an industrial city.
The method of membrane cleaning.
Cartoon explaining the process of membrane cleaning.
The section of the module that the membrane cleaning device consists of.
In a membrane installation, purification takes place at the molecular level.
With all methods of wastewater treatment, sediment remains.
There is sludge in chemical treatment, and active sludge in biological treatment.
Disposal of precipitation is an unsolved problem.
The sediments are dewatered, compacted and disposed of.
The conditions for the release of treated wastewater into reservoirs are regulated by the Rules for the Protection of Surface Waters from Wastewater Pollution.
Waste water is being examined in the laboratory.
In some industries, these rules are violated.
The equipment is in a deplorable condition, the cleaning technology is not maintained.
The reason is a lack of competence.
Block diagram of wastewater treatment.
View of the plant from the reservoir.
A swan swims in clear water.
Pond in the park.